Japanese Lesson 6 – 10

Japanese Lesson 6 - 10

 

Japanese Lesson 6 – To do (verb)   clickhere_blue25

shimasu – to do (something)      benkyou o shimasu – to study
shigoto o shimasu – to work      kaigi o shimasu – to have a meeting
kaimono o shimasu – to shop    jogingu o shimasu – to jog
pati o shimasu – to party             tenisu o shimasu – to play tennis

kyou – today             ashita – tomorrow
kino – yesterday    asatte – day after tomorrow
ototoi – day before yesterday

uchi – house                                   kouen – park
depato – department store    kaisha – company (office building)
gakko – school                              tomodachi – friend
sensei – teacher                           hisho – secretary

Sentence structure:
Time (day of the week) + Place + de (particle for action at a place) + Person + to (particle for “with whom”) + verb

Example:
Ashita kouen de Mary-san to tenisu o shimasu
Tomorrow I play tennis with Mary at the park

 

Japanese Lesson 7 – To give & To Receive   clickhere_green25

agemasu – to give    moraimasu – to receive

kyou – today              ashita – tomorrow
kino – yesterday      asatte – day after tomorrow
ototoi – day before yesterday

tokei – watch        keki – cake
hon – book

takai – expensive      oishii – delicious
nihon no hon – japanese book

tomodachi – friend

Sentence structure:
Subject + wa (particle) + Time (day of the week) + Person + ni (particle) + adjective + noun (object) + o (particle for “object”) + verb (agemasu / moraimasu)

Example:
Suzuki san wa ototoi tomodachi ni takai tokei o agemashita
The day before yesterday Suzuki san gave an expensive watch to his friend.

 

Japanese Lesson 8 – Family Members   clickhere_orange25

Your Family
sofu – grandfather                   sobo – grandmother
chichi – father                            haha – mother
ani – older brother                   ane – older sister
otouto – younger brother    imouto – younger sister
musuko – son                              musume – daughter
ryoushin – parents                   kodomo – children
kazoku – family                         shujin – husband
kanai/tsuma – wife

Another’s Family
ojiisan – grandfather                      obaasan – grandmother
otousan – father                               okaasan – mother
oniisan – older brother                 oneesan – older sister
otoutosan – younger brother    imoutosan – younger sister
musukosan – son                              musumesan – daughter
goryoushin – parents                     kodomosan – children
gokazoku – parents                        goshujin – husband
okusan – wife

 

Japanese Lesson 9 – Telling Time   clickhere_red25

1 o’clock – ichi-ji (ji counter for time)
2 o’clock – ni-ji               3 o’clock – san-ji
4 o’clock – yo-ji **         5 o’clock – go-ji
6 o’clock – roku-ji         7 o’clock – shichi-ji
8 o’clock – hachi-ji       9 o’clock – ku-ji **
10 o’clock – jyuu-ji      11 o’clock – jyuuichi-ji
12 o’clock – jyuuni-ji

AM – gozen             PM – gogo

Minute – pun/fun (depending on the number)

1 minute – ippun                   2 minutes – nifun
3 minutes – sanpun             4 minutes – yonpun
5 minutes – gofun                6 minutes – roppun
7 minutes – nanafun           8 minutes – happun
9 minutes – kyufun             10 minutes – jyuppun

Example:

4:18AM – gozen yoji jyuuhappun (AM/PM comes first in Japanese)

 

Lesson 10 – Particles   clickhere_blue25

Summary:

particle (wa) = topic marker
ex. Mary goes. = Mary-san (wa) ikimasu.

particle (ni) – place + ni = indicates direction/place
ex. Mary goes to Boston. = Mary-san (wa) Boston (ni) ikimasu.

particle (ni) – specific time + ni = indicates specific moment in time
ex. Mary goes to Boston at 3 o’clock. = Mary-san (wa) Boston (ni) sanji (ni) ikimasu.

* For relative time (ex. tomorrow, next week, last year, next month, etc.) you do not use the particle ni. Only use ni for specific time.

particle (to) – with someone + to = indicates with someone
ex. Mary goes to Boston with her mother. = Mary-san (wa) Okaasan (to) Boston (ni) ikimasu.

particle (de) – transportation + de = indicates mode of transportation
ex. Mary goes to Boston on a plane. = Mary-san (wa) hikouki (de) Boston (ni) ikimasu.